RTA: Pace and Metra Operate Efficiently But Collect Little Rider Revenue

Pace 6330 Oak Park-Stanley
Pace’s large service area and decreased ridership affects its service level financial solvency. Photo: mbernero/Flickr.

The Regional Transportation Authority’s newest report, issued last week, compares the Chicago Transit Authority, Metra, and Pace, to their respective peers around the country. The report found that the CTA is efficient, relative to rapid transit systems in Atlanta, New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, and Washington, D.C.

The RTA also compared Metra, using 2014 performance figures, to New Jersey Transit, commuter rail in Philadelphia, commuter rail in Boston, and the Long Island Railroad and Metro North Railroad in greater New York City. RTA spokesperson Susan Massel said they excluded BART in San Francisco because it’s not in the top 10 largest metropolitan areas and “for each mode we chose only 5 peers, so we picked the five that were most comparable.”

Like the CTA’s ‘L’ system, Metra also ran an efficient service compared to its peers. The commuter rail agency ranked first or second in three operating costs metrics. Metra, however, spent a larger portion of its budget on vehicle operations than the average of the five others, and spends slightly less than average on maintenance.

Metra didn’t fare well on having good maintenance. It ranks fifth for having young vehicles in its fleet, and ranked fourth and below average for the average number of miles a vehicle traveled before breaking down. The RTA mentioned that Metra has finished bringing in new cars on the Metra Electric district line and has a plan to purchase new cars – instead of buying rider-friendly trains, they’re locking in an old design another 30 years – for its other lines. The breakdown rate was high in 2014, the report said, because of the polar vortex issues that shut down lines on a couple days in January.

Metra managed to rank worse on service level solvency. They collect far less in ticket revenue per passenger than their peers, suggesting that Metra is undercharging. Since 2014, Metra’s new administration – including a new board, board chair, and CEO – announced that fares would go up in 2015 and that they would raise fares on an annual basis.

Metra also competes with personal vehicles. Driving into downtown Chicago is cheaper than driving into Manhattan because there are no tolls within 20 miles of the Loop, and parking is relatively affordable. Low fares are good for riders, and may be commensurate with transit’s lower mode share here than in the East Coast cities, but they may also signal that growth in demand for transit in the Chicago region is slow or non-existent.

It’s better for riders and for the administration when fares are raised on a slow-but-steady basis, as opposed to significant increases every now and then. This allows Metra to better predict how much revenue it will raise and use that to strategize and plan for the long term, something they haven’t done in a while. This change also gave them the confidence to sell debt, for the first time, to help pay for those new (but old-fashioned) train cars.

Charts from the RTA's report show how Metra compares to five other commuter rail agencies in collecting revenues from riders.
Charts from the RTA’s report show how Metra compares to five other commuter rail agencies in collecting revenues from riders.

The Regional Transportation Authority also reviewed the performance of Pace suburban bus. They also liked at Pace’s vanpool and paratransit for seniors and people with disabilities, but those aren’t discussed here. Pace’s suburban bus operations seemed to largely mirror Metra’s commuter rail performance: they’re successful at keeping operating costs down, but they spend, on average, a larger portion of their budget on vehicle operations than their peers, and a smaller portion on maintenance.

Additionally, Pace’s fleet had a middle-of-the-road average vehicle age and a reasonably good average distance between bus breakdowns, relative to similar services in Orange County, California; Detroit; San Mateo County, California; New Yorks Nassau Inter-County Express; and San Francisco.

Again, like Metra, Pace’s suburban bus operations collects much less in ticket revenue per passenger than its peers. The RTA partly blames the free rides program, saying one in six trips is a free ride.

Comparing ridership, Pace ranks low because it has a larger geographic coverage area, serving the lowest population density area among its five peers. The report said, “lower population densities require Pace to operate approximately twice as much service to achieve similar ridership levels as the top performer” on the two ridership metrics. That’s on top of a 3.1 percent ridership decrease from 2013 to 2014, “following three years of consecutive growth.”

The report doesn’t discuss what kinds of population growth or declines each transit agency’s service area – here and in the peer cities – saw. Nor do they look into the land use changes or policies that affect each region’s potential to, ultimately, grow transit ridership. Other organizations have found that the Chicago region is still developing outside of the built up area, growing at a slower rate, and growing away from existing transit lines, all affecting transit usage and agency efficiencies.

These additions would give the metrics a stronger context, and help us assess whether the policies of the RTA, its three transit agencies, and state funding – or the lack thereof – are successful in growing ridership.

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  • neroden

    Metra’s biggest inherent problem is the standard commuter rail problem: overstaffing due to an antiquated, work-intensive ticketing system. Most commuter rail systems have fares that are really too high, and operations costs which are too high (because of the aforementioned overstaffing). Metra’s fares are probably about right, if they could establish staffing levels like the CTA.

    Pace’s problem is primarily that it covers extremely low-density areas. This is not really fixable.

  • +1

    The peer systems to which Metra is being compared are all in New York and Philadelphia, not exactly examples of low-cost cities.

  • planetshwoop

    A peer group of 5 is like looking at the 4 people in my study group and drawing conclusions about the whole class. It feels tiny to get too many conclusions about operating costs, etc.

  • david vartanoff

    Sad to say, Metra Electric when it was the privately run Illinois Central was a pioneer in mag stripe ticket/turnstiles. When Metra took over, they scrapped a functioning system. It is long past time for ALL of Metra to become POP via ventra or its successor/competitor. I would venture that a large plurality if not majority of rush hour Metra riders buy monthly tix anyway. . n A two person crew, Conductor/assistant Conductor is sufficient for safety. A few random POP checks by fare inspectors at a much lower salary can take care of the few scofflaws.

  • neroden

    …and both the NY and Philly systems have severe overstaffing on their commuter rail operations. NY’s ticketing is as antiquated as Metra’s, and Philly’s ticketing is even more antiquated than Metra’s. So!

  • outoftowner

    Metra kept turnstiles on the ex-IC lines for quite a while after takeover. What appears to have killed this was a (perhaps accurate) perception of fare evasion at unstaffed stations with poor infrastructure to force passengers through turnstiles, a drop in train frequency that both reduced the advantage of turnstiles, and also lead Metra to set turnstiles to “Go” a couple of minutes before train time so that passengers wouldn’t miss an infrequent train due to turnstile issues, further increasing the need for on-board fare enforcement, and a resentment of passengers to have to both put the ticket in the turnstile, and have it audited on-board.

    There are reasons POP isn’t widely used in the US. First, it changes mistakes like a ride one stop outside of a fare zone, or a pass left in your other pants from a $5 dollar surcharge to a $100 fine. Second, while POP auditors may have some discretion over who they ticket, this discretion is in itself a problem as the stakes rise to those of a typical POP fine. Third, if you want to evade a fare, frequent riders can predict when they’ll be stopped (in Newark, usually at Penn Station and nowhere else, in Toronto on GO, watch for the policeman in full uniform, on some systems in Europe that I’ve ridden, just after the first of the month), leaving only the truly accidental to be fined. Fourth, reducing contact with conductors decreases the availability of transit information. There’s another reason specific to the US against POP: Here enforcement interactions between police and the general public seem to go badly more often than in the rest of the world.

  • Harvey Kahler

    The first issue I disagree with is the comparison of proportion of vehicle operations with other operators that, being electrified with POP fare control and stations, are not truly peers. The bulk of Metra operations are diesel-hauled trains and stations generally were built by communities.

  • Harvey Kahler

    The second point of contension is whether Metra’s equipment is not user-friendly. What does that mean? I believe Metra’s equipment is the best for its operating environment with high capacity.

    A six-car MED train provides 780 seats and is 510 feet long, 1.53 seats/ft. A ten-car Metra diesel train may have 1,446 seats and measure 909 feet, 1.59 seats/ft. An eight-car CTA train (#5001-series) has 380 seats and is 400 feet long, 0.95 seats/ft. Furthermore, large people take up two CTA 18-inch wide seats and discourage people sitting on adjacent seats, not a common problem on Metra with 22-inch wide seats. A ten-car train of single-level cars for high-level platforms would have only about 1,000 seats, a significant lose of capacity.

    From a low-level platform, all passengers must climb to the lower level of a Metra diesel train, but only a third of those must climb to the upper level to find a seat. ME and NICTD South Shore trains have level boarding to the lower level. Commuter rail peers all have multi-level cars with high-level boarding, but more seating is on the upper level.


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